Nine most severe types of spin No. (%) of abstracts containing spin
1) Conclusion contains recommendations for clinical practice not supported by the findings. 3 (6)
2) Title claims or suggests a beneficial effect of the experimental intervention not supported by the findings. 0 (0)
3) Selective reporting of or overemphasis on efficacy outcomes or analysis favoring the beneficial effect of the experimental intervention. 9 (18)
4) Conclusion claims safety based on non-statistically significant results with a wide confidence interval. 2 (4)*
5) Conclusion claims the beneficial effect of the experimental treatment despite high risk of bias in primary studies. 3 (6)
6) Selective reporting of or overemphasis on harm outcomes or analysis favoring the safety of the experimental intervention. 2 (4)
7) Conclusion extrapolates the review’s findings to a different intervention (i.e., claiming efficacy of one specific intervention although the review covers a class of several interventions). 0 (0)
8) Conclusion extrapolates the review’s findings from a surrogate marker or a specific outcome to the global improvement of the disease. 1 (2)
9) Conclusion claims the beneficial effect of the experimental treatment despite reporting bias. 3 (6)